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A wound is an injury to the skin or other body tissue caused by physical trauma, such as a cut, scrape, burn, or puncture. Wounds can be either open or closed, ranging from minor to severe. Treatment of a wound depends on the type and severity of the injury.

Open wounds are those that penetrate the skin and expose the underlying tissue. Various factors, including blunt force trauma, sharp objects, or thermal burns, can cause these wounds. Open wounds can be further classified as either incised, lacerated, punctured, avulsed, or contused. Incised wounds are caused by a sharp object, such as a knife or razor, and are generally clean and straight.

Lacerations are jagged wounds caused by blunt force trauma, such as a fall or a punch.

Punctured wounds are caused by a sharp object, such as a nail or needle, and are usually deep and narrow.

Avulsed wounds are caused by a tearing force, such as a dog bite, and can involve a large area of tissue.

Contused wounds are caused by a blunt force, such as a hammer or a baseball bat, and are usually deep and wide.

Closed wounds, such as bruises or contusions, do not penetrate the skin. These wounds are caused by blunt force trauma and can range from minor to severe. Treatment of closed wounds depends on the severity of the injury. Minor bruises may heal on their own, while more severe contusions may require medical attention.

Regardless of the type of wound, proper wound care is essential for healing and preventing infection. Wounds should be cleaned with soap and water, and debris or foreign objects should be removed. The wound should then be covered with a sterile dressing and monitored for signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or pus. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent or treat an infection.

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  • Mayo Clinic. (2020). Wound Care: Treating Cuts, Scrapes, and Punctures. Retrieved from
  • MedlinePlus. (2020). Wounds. Retrieved from
  • American Academy of Dermatology. (2020). Wound Care. Retrieved from